Thursday, 5 December 2019

Fungi Foray in the Forest of Preuilly, November 2019, Part II


Part I can be read here.

Amanita spp, with three Death Cap A. phalloides (Fr. Amanite phalloïdes).
Amanita spp, including Death Cap A. phalloides (centre).  Indre et Loire, France. Photographed by Susan Walter. Tour the Loire Valley with a classic car and a private guide.
White gilled mushrooms and Death Caps in particular are responsible for more poisonings and deaths than any other mushrooms. Death Caps are certainly very toxic, but they are responsible for so many deaths compared to another equally toxic group of mushrooms simply because they are more abundant and bigger, so look more appealing to cook. Galerina spp are just as toxic, but much less common and being small and brown, much less appetising looking, so people are rarely poisoned by them.

Good to see these two taking it seriously and consulting their field guides.
Two amateur mycologists consulting their field guides.  Indre et Loire, France. Photographed by Susan Walter. Tour the Loire Valley with a classic car and a private guide.
Behind them a basket containing Blusher Amanita rubescens (Fr. Amanite rougissante) which they were clearly intending to eat. You need to be really confident of your identification skills if you are going to eat this species, because of it's close resemblance to the toxic Panther Cap A. pantherina (Fr. Amanite panthère).

False Chanterelle Hygrophorpsis aurantiaca (Fr. Fausse chanterelle).
False Chanterelle Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca.  Indre et Loire, France. Photographed by Susan Walter. Tour the Loire Valley with a classic car and a private guide.
The vernacular name of this species simply indicates they are not the highly prized chanterelles, but an unrelated species. Nevertheless they are edible. They differ from true chanterelles by having gills, rather than gill like pleats or ridges. Both tend to be found under pine trees.

Sulphur Knight Tricholoma sulphureum (Fr. Tricholome soufré).
Sulphur Knight Tricholoma sulphureum.  Indre et Loire, France. Photographed by Susan Walter. Tour the Loire Valley with a classic car and a private guide.
These mushrooms really stink! The smell is likened to coal gas.

Death Cap and lookalikes.
Death Cap lookalikes. Amanita phalloides (left), Tricholoma sulphureum (front right), Tricholoma saponaceum (rear right).  Indre et Loire, France. Photographed by Susan Walter. Tour the Loire Valley with a classic car and a private guide.
Could you tell these mushrooms apart and identify the species? It probably doesn't matter if you can't because they are all toxic. That's all you need to know -- except perhaps that the one on the left, the actual Death Cap, is deadly. The other two are Soapy Knight Tricholoma saponaceum (Fr. Tricholome à odeur de savon) rear right, and Sulphur Knight T. sulphureum (Fr. Tricholome soufré), in case you wanted to know.

Amethyst Deceiver Laccaria amethystina (Fr. Laque améthyste) and 
Deceiver Laccaria laccata (Fr. Clitocybe laqué)
Amythest Deceiver Laccaria amythestina and Deceiver L. laccata.  Indre et Loire, France. Photographed by Susan Walter. Tour the Loire Valley with a classic car and a private guide.
Holding the mushrooms, Loches pharmacist and expert mycologist Didier Raas. The lovely smiling face belongs to our friend Marie-Hélène (who is our insurance agent). 

Charcoal Burner Russula cyanoxantha (Fr. Charbonnière).
Charcoal Burner Russula cyanoxantha.  Indre et Loire, France. Photographed by Susan Walter. Tour the Loire Valley with a classic car and a private guide.
Unusually for a member of the brittlegill family, this species has rather rubbery gills, which simply bounce back if you run your finger across them. Other related species have gills that would shatter if you did this. This one is being born off in triumph by its finder, my friend Corinne. It is edible. Not all Russula species are edible. If their stem stains red when you scrape it then don't eat it.

Webcap Cortinarius sp.
Webcap Cortinarius sp.  Indre et Loire, France. Photographed by Susan Walter. Tour the Loire Valley with a classic car and a private guide.
These old webcap Cortinarius sp are no longer showing any sign of their signature 'spiderweb' but you can recognise them nonetheless because of their rusty colour. All webcaps have rust coloured spores and they eventually colour the gills and often the stem as they fall.

Suede Bolete Xerocomus subtomentosus (Fr. Bolet subtomenteux).
There are four species of 'true' Cep -- Summer Cep Boletus reticulatus (Fr. Cèpe d'été); Edible Cep B. edulis (Fr. Cèpe de Bordeaux); Pine Cep B. pinophilus (Fr. Cèpe des pins); and Dark Cep B. aureus (Fr. Tête de nègre). These are the most prized of all the wild mushrooms, part of the Boletaceae family. Then you get the dry capped boletes, Xerocomus spp, which feel like saddle leather. Finding a Bay-brown Bolete X. badius (Fr. Bolet bai) is nearly as good as finding a cep. The Suede Bolete (above) is not so highly regarded, but adds good bulk to a collection of mixed boletes. It can be distinguished from the Bay-brown by its brighter yellow, bigger pores. Then there are the sticky or slimey capped boletes and related mushrooms, which are more variable in their palatibility, depending on species, and finally, the Orange Oak Bolete Leccinum aurantiacum (Fr. Bolet orangé), which forms a separate category again. Although it discolours badly, it is abundant and most people happily add it to a mixture of other boletes for bulk.

Scarletina Bolete Neoboletus luridiformis syn Boletus erythropus (Fr. Bolet à pied rouge).
Scarletina Bolete Neoboletus luridiformis syn Boletus erythropus.  Indre et Loire, France. Photographed by Susan Walter. Tour the Loire Valley with a classic car and a private guide.
This is an edible mushroom in the Boletaceae family. Unfortunately, it resembles one of the few toxic species in this family, and so most people avoid it unless they are experienced and confident fungi foragers.


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4 comments:

Colin and Elizabeth said...

Some grand specimens this year but only to photograph for me!!

Susan said...

Yes, me too, except for the occasional cep or bolete, if by some miracle I get to a nice one before a French person!

Katie Zeller said...

The most (supposedly) knowledgeable mushroomer in Andorra, with more than 20 years experience there, died after enjoying his mushroom omelet. That put me off foraging lol

Susan said...

Yes, that sort of thing is offputting, and it happens surprisingly often.

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