Old vineyards that haven't had a century or so of having arsenic, copper and sulphur poured onto them multiple times a year can have some surprises. One abandoned vineyard at Séligny that I have visited a couple of times now has some nice ferns species, for example.
|Male Fern Dryopteris filix-mas (Fr. Fougere male), abundant in the Touraine Val de Loire.|
|Intermediate Polypod Polypodium interjectum (Fr. Polypode intermédiaire), widespread in Western Europe.|
|Black Spleenwort Asplenium adiantum-nigrum (Fr. Doradille noire) is rare in the Touraine Val de Loire, but widespread, being native to Europe, Africa and Australia, and introduced to America. It likes hot dry habitat with lots of flint.|